Following the exhilaration and subsequent disappointment of the Arab Spring, the North Africa, Middle East and Sahel region – which extends from Mali to Afghanistan – has become greatly destabilized by civil wars in Syria, Libya and Yemen, which are three of the most dangerous conflicts in the world. Diplomatic interventions by Russia, the United States, the European Union, the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Arab League and others in all three conflicts have not been able to secure a breakthrough in peace talks. In Syria, the peace process remains fragile and lacks the legitimacy needed to lead to a sustainable peace agreement, while mostly concentrating on humanitarian access, and faces perceptions of lack of credibility amongst all stakeholders. In Libya and Yemen, fragmented and non-inclusive political processes are taking place, and some of the main parties to the two conflicts are not seriously engaged in them. While these peace processes stall, the socio-economic and humanitarian consequences are worsening, and international and regional tensions are also growing.